Document Type: Review Article


Department of Electrical Engineering, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran


Abstract High voltage direct current system is a type of high voltage direct current transmission system. This method is a new way to transfer electrical energy on a large scale and so it is a good alternative to traditional method (using alternating current). An integrated system is required to transfer electricity from power plants to consumers. This system includes energy production centers, stations, transmission lines or cables and Egyptians. In this article, we will evaluate the VSC-HVDC transmission system and line stability methods will be evaluated in the presence of scattered production resources. For this reason, in the first part, the HVDC system, the two-level VSC control converter will be expressed and in the second part, a summary of scattered production sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic system) will be expressed.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects

[1] Adapa, R, High-wire act: Hvdc technology: The state of the art, IEEE power and energy magazine, 10(6) (2012), 18-29.

[2] Mozafari AS, Jamzad M, A SVM-based model-transferring method for heterogeneous domain adaptation, Pattern Recogn 56(1) (2016), 142–158.

[3] Aboul-Ela, M. E., Sallam, A. A., McCalley, J. D., & Fouad, A. A, Damping controller design for power system oscillations using global signals, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 11(2) (1996), 767-773.

[4] Maheswari L, Srinivasa Rao P, Sivakumaran N, A control strategy to enhance the life time of the battery in a stand-alone PV system with DC loads. IET Power Electron, 10(9) (2017), 1087–1094.

[5] Lee J-H, Liang T-J, Chen J-F, Isolated coupled-inductor integrated DC–DC converter with non-dissipative snubber for solar energy applications, IEEE Trans Ind Electron, 61(7) (2014), 3337–3348.

[6] J. Zhao, J. Huang, & N. Xiong, An Effective Exponential-Based Trust and Reputation Evaluation System in Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE Access, 7 (2019), 33859-33869

[7] Namara Mc, Negenborn P, De Schutter B, & Light body, G, Optimal coordination of a multiple HVDC link system using centralized and distributed control, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 21(2) (2012), 302-314.

[8]   Cole, S., Beerten, J., & Belmans, R, generalized dynamic VSC MTDC model for power system stability studies, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 25(3) (2010), 1655-1662.

[9]G. Han, J. Jiang, L. Shu, J. Niu, H.-C. Chao, Management and applica­tions of trust in Wireless Sensor Networks: A survey, Journal of Com­puter and System Sciences, 80(3) (2014), 602-617.

[10] Axelrod B, Berkovich Y, Ioinovici A, “Switched capacitor/ switched-inductor structures for getting transformer less hybrid DC–DC PWM converters”, IEEE Trans Circuits Syst I, 55(2) (2008), 1159–1171.

[11]      Kazmierkowski, M. P., & Malesani, L, Current control techniques for three-phase voltage-source PWM converters: A survey, IEEE Transactions on industrial electronics, 45(5) (1998), 691-703.

[12] Muhammad M, Armstrong M, Elgendy MA, Analysis and implementation of high-gain non-isolated DC–DC boost converter, IET Power Electron, 10(11) (2017), 1241–1249.

[13] Fuchs A, Mariéthoz S, Larsson M, Morari M, “stabilization of large power system using vsc-hvdc and model predictive control”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, 29(1) (2012), 1-6.

[14] Smed, T., Andersson, G, Utilizing HVDC to damp power oscillations, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 8(2) (1993), 620-627.

[15] Tseng K-C, Lin J-T, Huang C-C, “High step-up converter with three-winding coupled inductor for fuel cell energy source applications”, IEEE Trans Power Electron, 30(2) (2015), 574–581.

[16] Z. Chen, L. Tian, & C. Lin, “Trust Model of Wireless Sensor Networks and Its Application in Data Fusion”, Sensors (Basel), 17(3) (2017), 703

[17] Tang Y, Fu D, Kan J, “Dual switches DC/DC converter with three-winding-coupled inductor and charge pump”, IEEET rans Power Electron, 31(1) (2016), 461–469

[18] Tseng K-C, Chen J-Z, Lin J-T, “High step-up interleaved forward-fly back boost converter with three-winding coupled inductors”, IEEE Trans Power Electron, 30(9) (2015), 4696–4703.

[19] Chu GML, Lu DDC, Agelidis VG, “Fly back-based high step up converter with reduced power processing stages”, IET Power Electron, 5(3) (2012), 349–357.

[20] Emrani A, Adib E, Farzaneh fard H, “Single-switch soft switched isolated DC–DC converter:, IEEE Trans Power Electron, 27(4) (2012), 1952–1957.

[21] D.D.S. Braga, M. Niemann, B. Hellingrath, F.B.D.L. Neto, “Survey on Computational Trust and Reputation Models”, ACM Computing Surveys, 51(5) (2019), 101-110.