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Document Type : Short Review Article


1 School of Bioscience, IIT Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal, India

2 School of Medical Science and Technology (SMST), IIT Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal, India

3 Department of Chemistry, Delhi University, Delhi-110007, India


Lactic acidosis is a condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of lactic acid in the body, leading to a disturbance in the acid-base balance. It can occur due to various factors, including impaired oxygen supply, medication use, and liver dysfunction. The pathophysiology of lactic acidosis involves an imbalance between lactic acid production and elimination or utilization. Diagnosing lactic acidosis involves clinical evaluation, blood tests, and identification of underlying causes. Elevated lactate levels, arterial blood gas analysis, and electrolyte imbalances are commonly assessed. Imaging studies and electrocardiograms may be used to evaluate organ function and identify contributing factors. Treatment of lactic acidosis focuses on addressing the underlying cause and supporting organ function. Prompt resuscitation and oxygen therapy are crucial in cases of impaired oxygen delivery. Medications or toxins that contribute to lactic acidosis may need to be discontinued or managed differently. Fluid and electrolyte management is essential for correcting imbalances and optimizing organ function. In severe cases, interventions such as renal replacement therapy or hemodialysis may be required. Prevention of lactic acidosis involves managing underlying medical conditions and avoiding factors that can contribute to its development. Regular monitoring of medications that can cause lactic acidosis is necessary, with adjustments made if needed. Proper control of chronic conditions such as diabetes or liver disease can minimize the risk of lactic acidosis. Individuals engaging in intense physical activities should receive appropriate training, hydration, and pacing to prevent excessive lactic acid build-up. Lactic acidosis can have significant health effects and complications. Cardiovascular effects can occur, including arrhythmias, decreased cardiac output, and cardiac arrest. Organ dysfunction, such as acute kidney injury, liver failure, and pancreatitis, may result from lactic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis, electrolyte imbalances, and hypoxia are also common consequences. In severe cases, lactic acidosis can lead to confusion, altered mental status, and coma.

Graphical Abstract

A Mini Review on Lactic Acidosis Effect, Cause, Symptoms, Complications, Metabolism, and Pathodology with Its Diagnosis, Treatment, and Preventions


Main Subjects

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