Non-renewable energy sources produced from natural coal and oil may result in climate change and global warming as greenhouse gases release to the environment. This reason faces the main utilization of energy sources on renewable and alternate green energy to deliver power. Thus, microbial fuel cell device is one of the cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices that uses renewable organic wastes as fuel source and converts this stored chemical energy in to useful bioelectricity simultaneously with treating the waste in the presence of biocatalyst. Therefore, it is the most cost effective and simple electrochemical technique that delivers renewable energies. Most of the time electrodes of fuel cells are commercialized and depends on platinum catalyst. Obviously, platinum and its family cost are so expensive. To solve this, researchers are focused on low-cost electrode materials fabrication but still they are in low performance towards wastewater and current generations. Currently, conventional carbon materials are utilized as anode electrodes in laboratory even in pilot scale microbial fuel cell system but are ineffective in their performances due to various reasons. So, to improve performances, anode electrodes were modified with nanocomposites composed from low-cost transition metal oxides and conducting polymeric materials. Therefore, in this review possible ways of transition metal oxide synthesis including green method to form composite with selective conducting polymers, composite modification of anode and its role for wastewater treatment, dye removal as well as bioelectricity generations are briefly discussed.