Document Type : Short Review Article


1 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Jadriya, Baghdad, Iraq

2 Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq

3 Department of postgraduate affairs, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq


Plasticizers is a type of organic materials that can be enhanced to polymers for improving their several characteristics; for example, mechanical properties and pliantness. Plasticizers are veritably significant for the construct of polymeric membrane for potentiometric methods, a significant type of sensors for electrochemical methods. The suitable application of plasticizers in the formulation of membranes for preparing electrodes. The character of the plasticizer effects fundamental operation pointers of the ion-selective membrane electrodes; for example, slope, selectivity, and the area of linear reply. A plasticizer in the membrane formulation has to be well-matched with the ionophore and polymer and have a small solubility and an upper lipophilicity in solution as aqueous. The selection of the high-quality plasticizer for the improvement of a membrane special to an accurate ion ordinarily includes experimental assessments to discover the ionophore with the plasticizer having suitable response properties of the ion-selective electrodes are acquired. Some instances of choosing good suited plasticizer for the formulation of selective electrodes responsive have been given for organic and inorganic ions.

Graphical Abstract

Usage and Characteristics of Plasticizers as Ion-Selective Electrodes: A Short Review


Main Subjects

  1. Introduction

Plasticizers are added substances that increment decreasing viscosity of a substance or the plasticity. These are the materials including request to adjust their physical characteristics. These are also liquids, solids, and lesser volatility. They reduce the connection of amid chains of polymer to formulate them extra plastic. In the course of the most recent 60 years over 30,000 various materials have been assessed for plasticizing characteristics. In addition, just a modest number-around 50-are today use in marketable [1]. Especially, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the dominant applications for plastics production. The characteristics of various materials may be developed as mixed by using plasticizers containing clays, concrete, and connected produces [2]. Permitting to 2014 records, the whole worldwide marketplace for plasticizers were 8.4 million metric tons [s1] containing 1.3 million metric tons in Europe [3]. Figure 1 shows the distribution of some plasticizer utilization in 2017.

Figure 1. The distribution of some plasticizer utilization [4]

A plasticizer is a material joined into a substance to expand the plasticity, distensibility, and functionality by powers of breach intermolecular inner the substance [5]. Best plasticizer characteristics are acceptable miscibility; for example, the powers of solid intermolecular between the polymer resin and the plasticizer, minimal expense for each volume, low instability, little explicit gravity, and diffusivity [6]. A very much plasticized item ought to be plastic at a low level of temperatures, and ought to have a low rigidity; however, with a high-level tensile elongation, little flexible modulus, and a lower temperature of transition glass [4]. Through the latest years, the manufacture in worldwide for plasticizers was about 5 million tons each year. About 60 polymers and in addition, 30 groups of polymers were applied [7]. The plasticizers utilization for plastic outcomes makes it certainly not a novel practice. It was used to vary the polymer attributes started during the 1800s. In those initial time, producers of celluloid polishes, or celluloid utilized castor oil, and regular camphor for plasticization, yet these were unsuitable for some final employments. Afterward, in 1912, triphenyl phosphate was tried to auxiliary oil of camphor, addressing the start of the plasticizers of ester period [8]. A discovered plasticizers uses were phthalic acid esters without precedent for 1920 and keep on being the biggest group of plasticizers in the century of 21st [9]. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), too named as “dioctyl phthalate” (DOP), was presented in 1930 which mostly utilized as a plasticizer in 1930s [10]. The incredible assortment of outcomes for plastic and its various uses have prompted the advancement of better than ever plasticizers to see produce value plus particular supplies. Over the last 50 years, enactment and safety of health issues have prompted the improvement of a wide scope at present accessible commercial plasticizers [11]. They incorporate some benzoates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, esters of azelaic, sebacic plus acid of adipic, fatty acid esters, and tartrates. At the present time, there is expanding notice in the utilization of normal constructed plasticizers portrayed through the minimum migration and little toxicity. This gathering incorporates epoxidized fatty substance vegetable oils; for example,oil of  linseed, oil of soybean, oil of sunflower, oil of castor and esters of fatty acid [12]. Likewise, there is normal based plasticizers is additionally identified by the expanded notice of substance specialists and enterprises in the improvement of novel bio-depended on substances produced by using biodegradable resources and renewable with possibility to make smaller the utilization of normal plastic produces. It is sensible to assume that biopolymers plasticizers ought to be ideal and biodegradable [13]. This research shows the types of plasticizers used in potentiometric determination of various drugs.

  1. Classification of plasticizer

In science of polymer, plasticizers be able to  also characterized as outer or else inner. The outer plasticizers are less unstable materials in addition to polymers [14]. For this situation, plasticizer  molecules cooperate with chains of polymer, yet are not chemically appended to them by essential bonds and can, along these lines, will  be missing by vaporization, extraction, or even migration. Alternatively, the inner plasticizers are the intrinsic pieces of the polymer molecules and come to be the division of the produce, which are able to be co-polymerized into the construction of polymer or responded by the initial polymer [15]. Inner plasticizers, for the most part, have massive designs giving polymers an extra gap to transport from one place to another and keep polymers from move toward together. Hence, they make softer polymers through bringing down the Tg and, in this way, decreasing flexible modulus. For together kinds, while further articulated for inward plasticizers, a great temperature reliance of substance characteristics is noticeable [16]. The advantage of utilizing the outer plasticizers, contrasted with those inward, is the opportunity to choose the suitable substance relying upon the ideal product characterizes [17]. Plasticizers are named essential and secondary [18]. In the event where a polymer is solvent in a high value of concentration of the polymer in a plasticizer, it is supposed to be an essential plasticizer. This kind of plasticizers are utilized like a single or fundamental component of the plasticizer, they should gel the polymer quickly in the ordinary preparing various temperatures also ought not to radiate from the substance of plasticized. Optional plasticizers, then again, have lower limit of gelation and restricted similarity with the polymer, they are commonly mixed with essential plasticizers, to further develop producing characterizes or diminish the expense [19]. Plasticizers depended on films for biopolymer, can be partitioned into dissolvable and insoluble in water [20]. The form and the evaluation of plasticizer unequivocally influence the film development from aqueous dispersals of polymeric [21]. Plasticizers of hydrophilic dissolve in the aqueous moderate when they are added to polymer scatterings and whenever included in high fixation, they can prompt an expansion in water dissemination in the polymer [22]. Conversely, plasticizers as hydrophobic might nearby the miniature empty space in the film, prompting a lessening in water take-up [23]. Be that as it may, water insoluble plasticizers can cause a stage partition prompting adaptability misfortunes or to the arrangement of intermittence zones through film dry [24]. As a result, water fume penetrability rates are expanded. Taking up unsolvable plasticizer via using the polymer can be accomplished by an ideal stir pace of the polymeric dispersals by using plasticizer [25].

  1. The (physicochemical) properties of plasticizers

The main physical factor for assessing the expected environmental and human openings to plasticizers are water solvency, octanol/water parcel factor, and draining data [26]. Moreover, the vapor pressing factor of the plasticizers at the utilization temperature may be significant at the times. While the data for vapor and solubility pressures are somewhat accessible, the least amount of data is accessible on leakage. Table 1 sums up the significant physicochemical attributes, several of which are assessed (valued not experimentally) regulating their validation. It is feasible to anticipate the virtual experience to be estimated from the utilization of various plasticizers. The leakage pace is based on the composite lipophilicity and the substance put away, term of storage, stockpiling temperature, contact region, and sometimes tumult. Usually, the plasticizers illustrate a further degree of leakage in lipophilic solutions [27]. The most clear illustrated end is an extreme data absence on dissolvability, oil/water parcel factors, and particularly plasticizers draining less than the applicable requirements to the utilization in plasticized produces. In Table 1, as can be found, the surveyed plasticizers are lipophilic and each one, aside from ATBC, have log Kow esteems over 7 and low water dissolvability. In this regard, the options are not extremely quite the same as DEHP. The leakage of these materials from PVC to body liquids/tissues is relied upon the comparative greatness and DEHP with the ATBC conceivable exemption [28].

Table 1. Summary of various physical characterization of the studied plasticizers [29]

a: Loosing of plasticizers from a  sheet of PVC including 40% plasticizer when removed for 24 hours (ASTM D1239-55 (from Sears, 1989) with water at 50 °C .

b: Loosing of plasticizers from a sheet of  PVC including 40% plasticizer when removed for 24 hours (ASTMD1239-55 (from Sears, 1989)  with kerosene at 23 °C

  1. Plasticizers utilized for the ion-selective electrodes of polymeric membranes

The improvement of polymeric membrane (film) plasticized sensors was a major advancing. It prompted the development and broadening analysis of ion-selective electrode [30,31]. Liquid membrane of the electrodes were hard toward deal with and did not permit the utilization of ion-selective electrodes in each place in light of the fact that the liquid membrane will be leakage [32]. The film of polymeric has characteristics similar to liquid membranes, yet the scope of uses is a lot bigger. Polymers which plasticized are indeed profoundly tacky liquids in addition they are referred to in the writing as membranes of liquid because of the great values of dispersion factors of their complexes and ionophores [33]. This membrane can in any case be measured as a stage of liquid, since dissemination factors for a broke up low-atomic mass segment (for example, an ionophore) are on the request for 10-7 to 10-8 cm2 s-1 [34]. Regularly, a particularly dissolvable polymeric membrane comprises around 66 g of plasticizer and just 33 g of PVC for every 100 g. Just at extremely substances at a low level plasticizer (<20 g/100 g), dissemination factors might be l0-11 cm2 s-1 and more suitable, moving toward estimates that are initiated for solids. The utilized of plasticizers in the readiness of the ion-selective electrodes by polymeric membrane should be viable and furthermore should be addressed cyclohexanone or tetrahydrofuran, the dissolvable utilized in the formulation of membrane [35]. With high lipophilicity, the plasticizers are the same. The greatest plasticizers are used up as: dinonyladipinate (DNA), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), dioctylphthalate (DOP), tris (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), ortho-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE), and bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DOA) [36]. This method a huge useful assortment for sensors of polymeric membrane that might be prepared with or without an inside solution as a reference, incorporating the sensors utilized in analysis of flow injection [37, 38]. The arrangement of the bibliographic substance and our own exploration substance was sought after call attention to the manner by which the plasticizers’ characteristics the impact the attributes of the sensors for potentiometric (as parts are ion-selective electrodes) and the overall method of appropriately choosing a reasonable plasticizer. The utilizing Plasticizers for the arrangement of polymeric layers are used in the development of ion selective electrodes are introduced for organic/inorganic ions [39,40]. We introduced the exhibitions got just; for example, how to choose a plasticizer for the improvement of ion-selective electrodes utilized in physiologically active amines, drug products, inorganic particles analysis, and anionic surfactants. Many electrodes were prepared depended on various types of plasticizers, as listed in in Table 2.

Table 2. Characterization of electrodes depended on different types of plasticizers

  1. Green production

To avoid a pollution found by using chemicals plasticizers, we go to use the green production. The production of these composites ought to as well be thought. However, there is an absence of writing around area [62, 24]. All together for a plasticizer to be considered green, it isn't adequate to look at just the risks related with the actual compound, relatively should contemplate how the composite is formed, counting feedstock sourcing, and the method of synthesis. When an applicant plasticizer has been evaluated and considered reasonable as far as its presentation, harmfulness, leaching, and biodegradation, the examination of the engineered methods utilized in its creation is carried out by the principles of green chemistry. Some of these principles relate applications to plasticizers and chemical synthesis like the utilization of more secure solvents and helpers, fewer hazardous of chemical synthesis, atom economy, waste prevention, decreased number of derivatives, catalysis, energy proficiency, and constant investigation for preventing pollution [63]. In any case, there is an absence of distributed work on the subject for techniques of green synthesis applied explicitly to plasticizer production. All things considered, the previously mentioned principles can be useful as a beginning stage for the novel study [64]. The utilization of inexhaustible feed stocks for plasticizer construction instead of using petrol based feed stocks ought to be viewed as when planning a really green plasticizer. The maximum make frequently use of type of plasticizers are esters, which are comprised of organic acids esterified with alcohols, of which there is expanding inexhaustible stockpile accessible [65],[66]. One composite that has earned extensive premium as a sustainable feedstock is succinic acid, which is as of now delivered by maturation at a mechanical scale and can be utilized as a decent stage substance with no guarantees, or else with its extra decrease to 1,4-butanediol [67,68]. Plasticizers dependent on succinic corrosive have been investigated in a few ongoing considerations [69]. Unique thought ought to be given to utilize sustainable substance that do not uproot food production to stay away from economic repercussions and significant social [70,71]. For example, inexhaustible resources gotten from agro-mechanical deposits and from non-consumable biomass can be utilized as chemical feedstock to combination of plasticizer [72]. An analysis of sustainably obtained resources with LCA methods is by and large suggested [73].


  1. Conclusion

In this study, the significance and legitimate utilization of plasticizers were introduced in the formulation of membrane (film) used for ion-selective electrodes. The type of the plasticizer impacts the fundamental performing indicators of the ion-selective membrane electrodes like straight response, selectivity, and slope. A plasticizer for the formulation of membrane should be viable with the polymer and further by the part (ionophore), and have a little solvency in an aqueous solution and high lipophilicity. The determination of the top plasticizer for the improvement of a membrane (film) special to a special particle generally includes exploratory tests to discover the ionophore and plasticizer which the maximum reply qualities of the ion-selective electrodes are acquired. A few instances of choosing the most appropriate plasticizer for the plan of selective electrodes responsive to organic , inorganic ions have been introduced in a definite way.

  1. Acknowledgment

We would like to thank AI-Nahrain University, Tikrit University, Baghdad University for their assistance in this study.


Amina M. Abass

Ahmed Z. M. Al-Bassam

Citation: A.M. Abass*, O.S. Hassan, A.Z.M. Al-Bassam. Usage and Characteristics of Plasticizers as Ion-Selective Electrodes: A Short Review. J. Chem. Rev., 2022, 4(4), 364-373.

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